Zaltech – World of Spices

Spice lexicon


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AnisBasilTurmericCardamomChilliesDillGingerGarlicCorianderCarawayLovageBay leafCloveOreganoBell pepperPepperPimentoRosemaryCeleryMustardVanillaJuniperCinammonOnionEssential oils, extracts, oleoresins

Anis

Plant Family: Umbelliferae
Latin Name: Pimpinella anisum L.
Classification: Umbelliferae fruit
English: Anise, Anis, Sweet cumin
French: Anis vert, Boucage

AnisAnis

Spice Profile:
sweet-spicy, strong aromatic. Important component in ess. oil is TRANS-ANETHOL.

Part used for spicing:
Irregular, pear-shaped, light grey/green to grey brown, flat sub-fruits, at the top tapered, 3-6 mm long with angular main rib and bristles, from a one-year old cultivated plant.

Areas of cultivation:
Eastern Mediterranean, India, Central and South America, Russia, Turkey.

Application:
Bread and baked items, sweet dishes, liquors, biscuits, meat products, tea, soups.


Basil

Plant Family: Labiatae
Latin Name: Ocimum basilicum L.
Classification: Leafy herb
English: Basil, Sweet Basil
French: Basilic, Herbe royalle

BasilikumBasilikum

Spice Profile:
Characteristic, pleasant aroma, with special characteristics depending on area of origin. The key elements in the ess. oil vary considerably depending on the area of origin. The main elements are LINALOOL / METHYLCAVICOL.

Part used for spicing:
dark green, long egg-shaped, 3-5 cm long and 2-3cm wide, smooth to slightly hairy leaves, usually just small notches, harvested before blossoming, whole or ground, from a one year old. 20-45 cm high plant that has bushy branches.

Areas of cultivation:
North Africa, Indonesia, France, Spain, Hungary, Turkey. Cultivated in temperate, tropical and sub-tropical areas.

Application:
Sauces, preparing vegetables, fish and meat, mushrooms, raw food, salads, Italian dishes.


Turmeric

Plant Family: Zingiberaceae
Latin Name: Curcuma longa L.
Classification: rhizome spice
English: Turmeric, Indian Saffron
French: Curcuma, Safran des Indes

Curcuma

Spice Profile:
Strong yellow-orange, refreshingly spicy, slightly tart-bitter (ginger-like). The main spicing components in the essential oil are TURMERON und ZINGIBEREN. In addition to the flavour, the colouring power of the spice make it of great interest to the processing industry.

Part used for spicing:
Meaty, exceedingly branching rhizome (rootstock) with approx. 6cm long finger-like side sprouts, a 1-2m high shrub that grows in Southeast Asia. The leaves are also used for spicing in various dishes.

Areas of cultivation:
India, China, Vietnam, Indonesia, South America, Thailand.

Application:
Curry, meat dishes, mustard-soups-sauces, ragouts, various meat products, paella.


Cardamom

Plant Family: Zingiberaceae
Latin Name: Elettaria cardamomum (L)
Classification: Seed spice
English: Cardamom, Green Cardamom
French: Cardamome (vert)

CardamomCardamom

Spice Profile:
Fresh and aromatic, strongly spicy, (with a refreshing note reminiscent of eucalyptus). The spicing components of the essential oil are CINEOL and alpha-TERPINYLACETAT.

Part used for spicing:
The seeds of a 2-2.5m tall bush indigenous of the tropical mountain forests. Cardamom is harvested and dried before it is completely ripe, when it has yellow-green-brownish, (up to 20 mm long and 8mm wide) egg shaped three-sided pods (shell with up to 18 seeds). Only the seeds contain the valuable spicy aromatic ingredients that are protected by the shell during storage.

Areas of cultivation:
India, Guatemala, Cambodia, Sri-Lanka, Tanzania, New Guinea, Indonesia.

Application:
Coffee, pastries, meat products, rice dishes, marinades and liqueurs, confectionery.


Chillies

Plant Family: Solanaceae
Latin Name: Capsicum frutescens L., Capsicum chinese, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum
Classification: Fruit spice
English: Chili, Chilli, Red Pepper, Cayenne Pepper
French: Poivre rouge, Piment enragé, Piment fort, Poivre de Cayenne

ChilliesChilliesChillies

Spice Profile:
Lastingly and extremely hot, in various strengths. The components that are important for the strength are the CAPSAICIN and the DIHYDROCAPSAICIN. The level of hotness is measured in SCOVILLE – units.

Part used for spicing:
The dried, ripe shiny orange-red to dark red fruits (the pods) without stem, 1-12cm long of a shrub–like plant. Chillies are botanically related to peppers. The colour, spicing power and hotness have varying strengths depending on the type and place of origin.

Areas of cultivation:
Mexico, Uganda, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, India, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Sri-Lanka, PR China, Indonesia.

Application:
Strong and spicy food preparation, chilli sauces, goulash, meat dishes, curry.


Dill

Plant Family: Umbelliferae
Latin Name: Anethum graveolens L.
Classification: Leafy herb
English: Dill, Dillweed (Kraut)
French: Aneth odorant, Fenouil bâtard

DillDill

Spice Profile:
sweet aromatic, characteristic, reminds somewhat of anis/caraway, whereby the plant tastes sweeter than the fruit. Important components in ess. oil are CARVON and LEMON.

Part used for spicing:
dark green, thin, almost handle-shaped, smooth-edged, approx. 1.5 cm long leaf sheath, at the base wedge-shaped from a one year old plant over 1 m tall. Dill seeds are also used to spice dishes.

Areas of cultivation:
Mediterranean, South America, China, India, South-east Asia.

Application:
Soups, salads, pies, fish and meat, mustard, marinades, vinegar.


Ginger

Plant Family: Zingiberaceae
Latin Name: Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Classification: Rhizome spice
English: Ginger
French: Gingembre

IngwerIngwer

Spice Profile:
Strong and refreshingly spicy, hot and rounded off with a tartly bitter note (fragrance similar to lemons). In addition to the essential oils (mainly ZINGIBEROL and ZINGIBEREN), the spicing components are hot tasting resins.

Part used for spicing:
Rhizome root shaped like antlers up to 12 cm long and 2 cm wide from a tropical reed-like bush that can grow to 1m tall.

Areas of cultivation:
China, India, Taiwan, Indonesia, Nigeria, Thailand, Africa, Jamaica, Sri-Lanka.

Application:
Pastries (Ginger cookies, ginger bread), ragout, meat dishes, marinades, rise dishes, marmalades, liqueurs, beer, fish dishes, fruit products, curry.


Garlic

Plant Family: Liliaceae
Latin Name: Allium sativum L.
Classification: Onion root
English: Garlic
French: Ail, Thériaque des pauvres

KnoblauchKnoblauch

Spice Profile:
Strong, characteristically sweet, accompanied by a slight to medium hotness. An important component of garlic is DIALLYSULFIDE that, together with further sulphurised components results in its characteristic taste.

Part used for spicing:
Elongated or egg-shaped supplementary onions that grow to a narrow point (“cloves”) of a hardy plant that can reach a height of 70 cm. The main onion consists of up to approx. 15 supplementary onions. Different breedings have produced different variations of colour and aroma.

Areas of cultivation:
Europe, East Asia, North and South America in both cases in moderate climatic zones.

Application:
Hefty dishes typical of certain countries, meat and venison preparations, sauces-soups, vegetables, marinades, vegetable oils.


Coriander

Plant Family: Umbelliferae Apiaceae
Latin Name: Coriandrum sativum L.
Classification: umbelliferous fruit
English: Coriander, Chinese Parsley
French: Coriandre, Punaise mâle

KorianderKorianderKoriander

Spice Profile:
tart-spicy, aromatic, sweet and fruity. An important component of the essential oils is LINALOOL.

Part used for spicing:
The round, ribbed 3-5 mm thick fruit with its yellow brown – yellow reddish colour is from a 30-60 cm tall (1-2 year old) dill-like plant, originally from the Eastern Mediterranean area. In addition to the fruit the fresh coriander leaves also are used as a spice ingredient in some Asian countries. (The form of its leaf is similar to that of parsley.)

Areas of cultivation:
CIS, Morocco, India, America, Rumania, Mediterranean countries, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, East Africa.

Application:
Breads and pastries, confectionary, sauces, curry, compotes, meat dishes.


Caraway

Plant Family: Umbelliferae, Apiaceae
Latin Name: Carum carvi L.
Classification: umbelliferous fruit
English: Caraway, Wild Cumin, Carvies
French: Cumin des Prés, Carvi, Grains de Carvi

KümmelKümmelKümmel

Spice Profile:
tart-spicy, warm and fruity, characteristically aromatic. Two important components of the essential oil are CARVON and LIMONEN.

Part used for spicing:
The 4-6 mm long (1.5 mm wide) yellow-grey-brownish fruit parts. This usually biennial plant (grows up to 1 m tall), has fruits parts that are bent in a sickle shape, slim, pointed at the end with light coloured grooves and is commonly found from Central Europe to Siberia.

Areas of cultivation:
Mediterranean area to Finland, CIS, America.

Application:
Meat preparations, breads/pastries, sauces-stew-soups, cheese, vegetables preparation, goulash, potato dishes, schnapps.


Lovage

Plant Family: Umbelliferae
Latin Name: Levisticum officinale Koch
Classification: Leafy herb
English: Lovage
French: Livéche

LiebstöcklLiebstöckl

Spice Profile:
sweet aromatic with slight sharpness, reminds somewhat of celery. The profile of the ess. oil is built on a number of ingredients and there is no dominating element. (The PHTHALIDE aroma component group hold a large share).

Part used for spicing:
Strong green leaves, up to 11 cm long and 7cm wide, light, thick fleshy, bi- or tripinnate, at the top roughly toothed with wavy, indented sides, from a long-lasting, upright bush up to 2 m high. Both fruit and roots are also important ingredients.

Areas of cultivation:
Iran, South and Central Europe, Asia, North America.

Application:
Roasts, vegetable dishes, stocks, stews, goulash, potato dishes, seasoning, liquors.


Bay leaf

Plant Family: Lauraceae
Latin Name: Laurus nobilis L.
Classification: Leafy spice
English: (sweet) laurel, (sweet) bay leef
French: Laurier (noble)

LorbeerLorbeerLorbeer

Spice Profile:
tart-spicy, slightly acidic-bitter, aromatic. An important component of the essential oil is CINEOL.

Part used for spicing:
The 8-10 cm long (3-5 cm wide) leathery, slightly wavy, fully rimmed, lancet-shaped, usually slightly shiny and olive green (top side) leaves. This characteristic tree can grow to 10 m tall and is found throughout the Mediterranean area. The leaves are used – without stems, fresh/dried, whole, broken or ground. In addition to the bay leaves, the berry-like pit-fruits (10-15 mm large, round to egg-shaped, brown-blue-black fruits with shrivelled surface) of the laurel tree are also used as spices.

Areas of cultivation:
Mediterranean countries, Central and South America.

Application:
Mead and venison dishes, fish dishes, sauces,-soups-broths, vegetables, mushrooms, ragout.


Clove

Plant Family: Myrtaceae
Latin Name: Caryophyllus aromaticus L.
Classification: Buds
English: Clove
French: Clous de giroflé

NelkeNelkeNelke

Spice Profile:
strongly aromatic, warm-spicy. Important component in ess. oil is EUGENOL.

Part used for spicing:
light to dark brown, completely developed, not yet blossoming, 12-18 mm long buds with handle-shaped, epigynous fruit buds from the clove tree up to 20m high.

Areas of cultivation:
Moluccas, Indonesia, Guyana, Java, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Zanzibar, India, Madagascar, Reunion, Brazil.

Application:
Meat and game dishes, gingerbread, mulled wine, fruit dishes, sweet dishes, drinks, marinades, vegetable, soups, spice mixtures.


Oregano

Plant Family: Labiatae Lamiaceae
Latin Name: Origanum vulgare L.
Classification: Leafy spice
English: Oregano, wild majoram, oregan
French: Marjolaine sauvage, Origan, Pelevoué, Marazolette, Thym de berger

OreganoOregano

Spice Profile:
spicy aromatic, typical slightly bitter, warm – herbal (similar to marjoram). The characteristic component used for spicing is CARVACOL and, as opposed to marjoram, oregano contains THYMOL as a component in the essential oil.

Part used for spicing:
Leaves (1-4 cm long, egg-shaped with dull point, with a full edge or gently nicked, some hairs on the edge of the leaf) from a blooming shrub with 20-50 cm high stalks. Oregano is usually processed in grated form.

Areas of cultivation:
Central and Southern Europe, Scandinavia, CIS, Asia, North America, Mexico, Chile.

Application:
Dishes of the Italian cuisine (pizza), vegetable-cheese-salad dishes, tomato dishes, fish and meat preparation.


Bell pepper

Plant Family: Solanaceae
Latin Name: Capsicum annum L.
Classification: Fruit spice
English: Bell Pepper, Pod Pepper, Sweet Pepper, Paprika
French: Piment annuel, Piment doux, Paprika de Hongrie

PaprikaPaprika

Spice Profile:
Strong red to dark red, mildly fruity with various intensities of pepperiness/hotness (Capsaicin). In addition to the flavour, (mainly the Carotinoid Capsanthin) the colouring power of the spice makes it of great interest to the processing industry. Bell pepper is rich in vitamin C.

Part used for spicing:
Dried, ripe, usually oblong-cup shaped, up to 12 cm long, shiny yellow red to red brown berry like fruit (pods) of the annual (to 1 m height) plant. Depending on the origin as well as the processing of the product (removal of partitions and seeds), a wide variety of taste profiles and colour spectrums can be obtained.

Areas of cultivation:
Hungary, Israel, Morocco, Bulgaria, Greece, Spain, Italy, Southern France, Balkans, Turkey, India, East Africa, Central and South America.

Application:
The most diverse kinds of meat preparation, goulash dishes, sauces, marinades, ragout, rice dishes, cheese.


Pepper

Plant Family: Piperaceae
Latin Name: Piper nigrum L.
Classification: Fruit spice
English: Pepper
French: Poivre

PfefferPfefferPfeffer

Spice Profile:
burning hot, aromatic in various strengths. The spicing components are, in addition to the essential oils and oleoresins, the piperine, which is responsible for the hotness.

Part used for spicing:
Fruit of the evergreen, tropical climbing shrub. 20-30 of the berry-like drupes are clustered closely together on a 7-15 cm long, hanging panicle.

Areas of cultivation:
India, Vietnam, Brazil, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Sumatra, PR China, Thailand, Madagascar and West Africa.

Application:
The various kinds of pepper are an integral part of many spicy, international dishes, as well as the preparation of highly specialized food products.Pink berries (red pepper) are round, pink-violet, Schinus fruits that are frequently mixed with “real” pepper as decoration, however, they are from a different plant (anacardiaceae family).


Pimento

Plant Family: Myrtaceae
Latin Name: Pimenta officinalis L
Classification: Fruit spice
English: Allspice, Jamaica Pepper, Myrtle Pepper, Newspice, Pimento
French: Piment, Poivre aromatique

PimentPiment

Spice Profile:
strong, sweet-heavy, widely aromatic accompanied by a slight pungency (similar to cloves). An important component of the essential oil is EUGENOL.

Part used for spicing:
The dark brown two-seeded berry fruits almost round (4-7 mm in size), with a matt, slightly warty surface are harvested shortly before ripeness when still green and dried. They grow on an evergreen tree that can reach a height of 13 m. The Mexican pimento is larger, has a diameter of 8-10 mm, but it is less aromatic.

Areas of cultivation:
Jamaica, Grenada, Mexico, West India, Honduras, Cuba, Brazil.

Application:
Bakery products and pastries, ginger bread, roasts, fish dishes, pâtés, sauces, confectionery, meat-fish-venison dishes.


Rosemary

Plant Family: Labiatae
Latin Name: Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Classification: Leafy spice
English: Rosemary, Old Man
French: Rosmarin, Ecensier, Rosmarin encens

Rosmarin

Spice Profile:
strongly aromatic, bitter, very characteristic (reminiscent of camphor). The main ingredient of the essential oil is CINEOL. Of great importance is the anti-oxidative effect of the rosemary-substance of content for example of carnosol acid.

Part used for spicing:
The short stemmed, needle shaped 1.5-3.5 cm long (and just a s wide), completely edged leaves with unrolled edge and short point are peeled off of the cut shoots of a thickly branched small shrub with light blue blossoms. The leaves are dark green and shiny on the top side, when they are dried they receive their well-known form of fir needles.

Areas of cultivation:
France, Morocco, CIS, North America, Spain, Portugal, Balkans, Turkey, Egypt.

Application:
Meat and venison dishes, preparation of lamb / poultry, sauces-soups-salads, cheese, vegetables, marinades.


Celery

Plant Family: Umbelliferae, Apiaceae
Latin Name: Apium graveolens L.
Classification: umbelliferous fruit
English: Celery
French: Céleri

SellerieSellerie

Spice Profile:
aromatic, slightly sweet with a broad characteristic note. The main component of the essential oil is LIMONEN.

Part used for spicing:
Cabbage (up to 40 cm long, crimped leaves with fleshy stems) tuber and seeds(approx. 1.3 mm long) of the plant are indigenous to Southern Europe and are used as an ingredient for spicing.

Areas of cultivation:
Central and Southern Europe, Egypt, North Africa, India, PR China, North America.

Application:
soups-sauces, meat preparations, broths, vegetables, potato dishes, Creolian cuisine.


Mustard

Plant Family: Cruciferae
Latin Name:
Classification: Seed herb
English: Mustard
French: Moutarde

SenfSenf

Spice Profile:
characteristic, aromatic, bitter, spicy. Important elements are the strong smelling ALLYSENFÖL and strong-tasting sulphanomide SENFOLGLYCOSIDE compounds.

Part used for spicing:
spherical seeds, approx. 1.5-2.5 cm diameter from capsule-shaped fruits from a one year old, yellow blossoming cruciferous plant. Mustard powder is usually used with the enzymes deactivated and with the oil extracted, which make the smell and taste much milder.

Areas of cultivation:
Central and Southern Europe, North Africa, India, China, USA, Argentina, Canada, Chile, Australia, CIS, Poland.

Application:
Sausages, fish marinades, mixed pickles, vegetable dishes, mustard products and all kinds of culinary preparations.


Vanilla

Plant Family: Orchidaceae
Latin Name: Vanilla planifolia Andr.
Classification: Fruit spice
English: Vanilla
French: Vanille

Vanille

Spice Profile:
sweet-spicy, warm-flowery, taste characteristics vary substantially according to region of origin (e.g. Mexican/bourbon vanilla etc.). The key flavours are VANILLIN, VANILLA ALCOHOL, p-HYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE and CINAMMON ACID ESTER.

Part used for spicing:
black-brown, bright, shiny, pressed or round, 12-25cm long and 5-10mm wide fruits, leading to points at the ends, at the base hook-shaped curving, with longitudinal grooves, harvested before ripe from a 10m tall climbing orchid (liana) found in tropical forests whose surface is occasionally covered with fine, white, needle-shaped vanilla crystals. Behind the fleshy fruit wall are deep brown/black, spherical, egg-shaped seeds of around 0.3 mm in size. The unmistakeable vanilla profile is developed during special preparation (fermentation) which also gives the vanilla sticks their long storage life.

Areas of cultivation:
Sri Lanka, Mexico, Madagascar, Réunion, Martinique, Comoros, Seychelles, Java, Tahiti, Uganda, Hawaii, Guatemala.

Application:
Chocolate, sweets, baked items, custard, sweet dishes, cocoa, drinks, sausage products, ice cream, milk products.


Juniper

Plant Family: Cypressaceae
Latin Name: Juniperus communis L.
Classification: Fruit spice
English: Juniper
French: Genévrier, Geiévre

WacholderWacholder

Spice Profile:
slightly bitter, spicy aromatic, accompanied by a sweet resinous note. Essential oil of juniper is characterized by its high level of terpene.

Part used for spicing:
The ripe, dried 4-10 mm thick black brown to dark violet berry cones (fake berry) with only one seed, indigenous to almost all of Europe, the juniper bush can grow to 3m height.

Areas of cultivation:
CIS, Italy, Germany, Spain, Southern France, Poland, Asia and North America in moderate climates.

Application:
Venison and meat dishes, vegetables (cabbage / kale), smoked mead, spirituous beverages, soups and sauces, pickling.


Cinammon

Plant Family: Lauraceae
Latin Name: Cinnamomum
Classification: Bark
English: Cinnamon
French: Canelle

ZimtZimt

Spice Profile:
sweet-spicy, pleasant warm, characteristic, burning. Important components in ess. oil are CINNAMON ALDEHYDE and EUGENOL.

Part used for spicing:
Bark or branches of the evergreen cinnamon bushes, separated from the external tissues (cork), rolled by drying. The fineness and colour of the bark determine the quality. Fresh cinnamon leaves can also be used as spices.

Areas of cultivation:
Sri Lanka, China, Burma, Seychelles, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Southern India, Brazil, Madagascar.

Application:
Sweet dishes, rice dishes, gingerbread, compotes, fruit dishes, meat, mulled wine, pasta, poultry, baked items, curry.


Onion

Plant Family: Liliaceae
Latin Name: Allium cepa L.
Classification: Onion spice
English: Onion
French: Oignon

ZwiebelZwiebel

Spice Profile:
sweet, mildly fruity – aromatic, often accompanied by obvious sharpness. Certain sulphurous combinations in the onion are responsible for provoking tears.

Part used for spicing:
Round to pear shaped onion (storage sprout) of approx. 20-50 mm (an more) diameter of a cabbage-like plant. The large number of different cultures allow a great choice of colour and taste and through their additional processing such as drying / frying new characteristic variations emerge. The fresh, tubular leaf part is also used as a spicing ingredient.

Areas of cultivation:
Syria, Egypt, Germany, PR China, India, California, the Netherlands, Hungary, Italy, Peru, Mexico, Poland.

Application:
Popular ingredient in a wide range of flavourful dishes such as soups-sauces, roasts, meat and fish dishes, vegetables, salads.


Essential oils, extracts, oleoresins
"Extracts of natural products"

The goal of the processing presented below is the extraction of aromatic and nutritionally and physiologically valuable content substances. Condiments and spices (“The gems of the plant world”), selected, controlled, cleaned and gently cut up by experts, serve as a base material for the production of extracts according to the following diagram:

The extraction (normal or high pressure extraction) is done in large-scale industrial plants under controlled conditions: Special regulations standardize the means of extraction as well as the completeness of their recovery. Combined methods of distillation and extraction as well as the use of different means of extraction have had a considerable influence on the quality of the extracts (products range from colourless to very colour intense of varying viscosity).

Important advantages of extracted products are:

  • few germs
  • little enzyme activity
  • standardised spicing strength
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